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sábado, 5 de fevereiro de 2011

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Manifesto de economistas defende controle de capital
Documento assinado por dezenas de economistas dos EUA e de outros países, foi encaminhado a autoridades do governo norte-americano defendendo a adoção de mecanismos de controle de capitais especualtivos como instrumento para enfrentar a crise financeira. "Dada a severidade da crise financeira global e sua extensão, as nações precisarão de todas as ferramentas possíveis que estiverem ao seu alcance para evitar e mitigar a crise financeira", afirma o manifesto assinado, entre outros, por Joseph Stiglitz, James K. Galbraith e Ricardo Hausmann.
Um grupo de economistas dos Estados Unidos e de outros países enviaram um manifesto à secretária de Estado, Hillary Clinton, ao secretário do Tesouro dos EUA, Timothy Geithner, e ao embaixador Ron Kirk, do Escritório de Comércio dos EUA, defendendo a adoção de mecanismos de controle de capitais especulativos como instrumento para enfrentar a crise financeira global. O texto do manifesto é o seguinte:

Nós, economistas abaixo assinados, escrevemos para alertar-vos a respeito de importantes novos desenvolvimentos na literatura econômica relativos a regulações financeiras prudentes e para expressar preocupação especial no que concerne ao quanto o controle de capitais é restrito nos tratados comerciais e de investimentos firmados pelos EUA com outros países.

Pesquisa renomada recentemente publicada pelo Bureau Nacional de Pesquisa Econômica, pelo FMI e em outros lugares chegaram à conclusão de que o estabelecimento de limites no influxo de capitais de curto prazo em nações em desenvolvimento pode estancar o desenvolvimento de bolhas de ativos e a supervalorização de moedas, e geralmente garante às nações mais autonomia nas suas políticas monetárias.

Dada a severidade da crise financeira global e sua extensão, as nações precisarão de todas as ferramentas possíveis que estiverem ao seu alcance para evitar e mitigar a crise financeira. A regulação de capitais decerto não é panaceia, mas essas novas pesquisas apontam para um consenso progressivo quanto a que técnicas de controle de capitais devam ser incluídas dentre as “medidas macro-prudenciais cuidadosamente desenhadas" apoiadas pelos líderes do G-20 na Cúpula de Seoul.

Na verdade, nos últimos meses um número de países, da Tailândia ao Brasil, tem respondido ao surto de fluxo de capital volátil adotando várias formas de regulação de capitais.

Nós também escrevemos para expressar nossa preocupação com o fato de que muitos dos acordos dos EUA de livre mercado e dos acordos bilaterais de investimento contém dispositivos que limitam estritamente a capacidade de nossos parceiros comerciais de desenvolverem controle de capitais. Os dispositivos que concernem à “transferência de capital” desses acordos requerem que os governos permitam todas as transferências relativas a investimentos cobertos pelos acordos sejam feitas “livremente e sem atraso, para dentro ou para fora de seu território”.

Sob esses acordos, investidores privados estrangeiros tem o poder de efetivamente processar governos em tribunais internacionais, alegando violações desses dispositivos. Um acordo pouco recente dos EUA pôs limites ao montante de prejuízos que investidores estrangeiros podem receber como compensações por algumas medidas de controle de capitais e requer um período de quarentena antes que os investidores possam protocolar suas reclamações. No entanto, essas pequenas reformas não vão longe o suficiente para assegurar que os governantes tenham a prerrogativa de usar essas ferramentas políticas. Os acordos de comércio e investimentos de outras grandes nações exportadoras permitem mais flexibilidade.

Nós recomendamos que os futuros Acordos de Livre Comércio e Tratados Bilaterais de Investimentos permitam aos governos desenvolver controles de capital sem se sujeitarem às contestações dos investidores, como parte de um conjunto mais amplo de opções políticas voltadas a impedir e mitigar crises financeiras.


Atenciosamente,

1. Ricardo Hausmann, Diretor do Harvard University Center for International Development

2. Dani Rodrik, Rafiq Hariri Professor do International Political Economy, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

3. Joseph Stiglitz, Professor Universitário, Columbia University, Nobel laureate

4. Arvind Subramanian, Senior Fellow, Peterson Institute for International Economics, and Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development

5. Nancy Birdsall, Presidente do Center for Global Development, Washington, DC

6. Olivier Jeanne, Professor de Economia na Johns Hopkins University, e Senior Fellow do Peterson Institute for International Economics

7. Pranab Bardhan, Professor de Economia na University of California, Berkeley

8. Lance Taylor, Departmento de Economia, New School for Social Research

9. Jose Antonio Ocampo, School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University

10. Stephany Griffith-Jones, Initiative for Policy Dialogue, Columbia University

11. Ethan Kaplan, IIES, Stockholm University and Columbia University

12. Dimitri B. Papadimitriou, President, The Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

13. Ilene Grabel, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

14. Alice Amsden, Department of Urban Studies and Planning, MIT

15. Gerald Epstein, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

16. Kevin P. Gallagher, Department of International Relations, Boston University

17. Sarah Anderson, Global Economy Project Director, Institute for Policy Studies

18. Arindrajit Dube, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

19. William Miles, Department of Economics, Wichita State University

20. Adam Hersh, Center for American Progress

21. James K. Galbraith, Lloyd M. Bentsen Jr. Chair in Government/Business Relations and Professor of Government, University of Texas at Austin

22. Paul Blustein, Nonresident Fellow, the Brookings Institution, and Senior Visiting Fellow, Centre for International Governance Innovation

23. Anton Korinek, Department of Economics, University of Maryland

Outros signatários dos EUA
1. Rania Antonopoulos, Diretora do Gender Equality and the Economy Program, Levy Economics Institute

2. Eileen Appelbaum, Center for Economic and Policy Research

3. Leslie Elliott Armijo, Visiting Scholar, Mark O. Hatfield School of Government, Portland State University

4. Ron Baiman, Center for Tax and Budget Accountability

5. Dean Baker, Co-diretor do Center for Economic and Policy Research

6. Radhika Balakrishnan, Diretora Executiva do Center for Women's Global Leadership and Professor at Women's and Gender Studies Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

7. Nesecan Balkan, Senior Lecturer, Department of Economics Hamilton College

8. Erol Balkan, Department of Economics, Hamilton College

9. Lourdes Beneria, Professora, Cornell University

10. Roger R. Betancourt, Professor Emérito de Economia, Department of Economics, University of Maryland

11. Ravi Bhandari, Senior Fulbright Scholar, Department of Economics, Saint Mary's College of California

12. Cyrus Bina, Distinguished Research Professor of Economics, University of Minnesota

13. William K. Black, University of Missouri-Kansas City

14. Ron Blackwell, Chief Economist, AFL-CIO

15. Robert A. Blecker, Professor and Chair, Department of Economics, American University

16. Howard Botwinick, Associate Professor of Economics, SUNY Cortland

17. James K. Boyce, Director Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts

18. Aldo Caliari, Director, Rethinking Bretton Woods Project, Center of Concern

19. John Cavanagh, Director, Institute for Policy Studies

20. Aydin Cecen, Professor of Economics and Director, Center for International Trade & Economic Research, Central Michigan University

21. Paul P. Christensen, Associate Professor of Economics, Hofstra University

22. Jens Christiansen, Professor of Economics, Mount Holyoke College

23. Steve Cohn, Professor of Economics, Knox College

24. Jane D'Arista, Research Associate, Political Economy Research Institute

25. Paul Davidson, Editor, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics

26. George DeMartino, Professor and Co-Diretor Program in GFTEI, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

27. James M. DeVault, Associate Professor of Economics, Lafayette College

28. Robert Devlin, Director, Organization of American States (OAS)

29. Rick Doner, Professor, Department of Political Science, Emory University

30. Marie Christine Duggan, Associate Professor of Economics, Keene State College

31. Amitava Krishna Dutt, Professor of Economics and Political Science, University of Notre Dame

32. Todd Easton, Associate Professor, Pamplin School of Business, University of Portland

33. Catherine S. Elliott, Professor of Economics, New College of Florida

34. Kimberly Elliott, Senior Fellow, Center for Global Development

35. Maria S. Floro, Economics Department, American University

36. Mwangi wa Githinji, Economics Department, University of Massachusetts-Amherst

37. David Gold, Associate Professor, International Affairs Program, The New School

38. Neva R. Goodwin, Co-director, Global Development And Environment Institute, Tufts University

39. John M. Gowdy, Rittenhouse Professor of Humanities and Social Science, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

40. Howard Handelman, Emeritus Professor of Political Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

41. Heidi Hartmann, President, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

42. Soren Hauge, Associate Professor, Economics Department, Ripon College

43. Ann Helwege, Department of International Relations, Boston University

44. Barry Herman, Graduate Program in International Affairs, The New School

45. Ellen Houston, Department of International Studies and Economics, Marymount Manhattan College

46. Amy Ickowitz, Assistant Professor, Clark University

47. Janis K. Kapler, Associate Professor and Chair, Economics Department, University of Massachusetts

48. Shahrukh Rafi Khan, Copeland Fellow, Amherst College

49. Haider A. Khan, Professor of Economics, Josef Korbel School of International Studies, University of Denver

50. Tarron Khemraj, Assistant Professor of Economics, New College of Florida

51. Robin A. King, Non-Resident Associate, School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University

52. Timothy Koechlin, Director, International Studies Program, Vassar College

52. Jan Kregel, Senior Scholar and Program Director, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

53. William Van Lear, Professor of Economics, Belmont Abbey College

54. Fernando Leiva, Associate Professor, Department of Latin American, Caribbean and US Latino Studies, University at Albany (SUNY)

55. Charles Levenstein, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts

56. Catherine Lynde, University of Massachusetts

57. Arthur MacEwan, Professor Emeritus, Department of Economics, Senior Fellow, Center for Social Policy, University of Massachusetts

58. Jeff Madrick, Editor, Challenge Magazine

59. Markos J. Mamalakis, Professor of Economics Emeritus, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee

60. David R. Mares, Institute of the Americas Chair for Inter-American Affairs and Director, Center for Iberian and Latin American Studies, University of California

61. Thomas Masterson, Research Scholar, Levy Economics Institute of Bard College

62. Julie Matthaei, Professor of Economics, Wellesley College

63. Kathleen McAfee, Associate Professor, Global Political Economy, Department of International Relations, San Francisco State University

64. Elaine McCrate, Economics and Women's Studies, University of Vermont

65. Martin Melkonian, Adjunct Associate Professor, Department of Economics, Hofstra University

66. Marcelo Milan, Assistant Professor of Economics, University of Wisconsin-Parkside

67. John A. Miller, Professor of Economics, Wheaton College

68. Daniel R. Miller, Department of History, Calvin College

69. Philip Moss, Professor of Economics, University of Massachusetts

70. Tracy Mott, Associate Professor and Department Chair, Department of Economics, University of Denver

71. Julie A. Nelson, Professor, Department of Economics University of Massachusetts

72. Richard B. Norgaard, Energy and Resources Group, University of California

73. Thomas Palley, Associate, Economic Growth Program, New America Foundation

74. Richard Parker, John F Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University

75. Eva Paus, Professor, Department of Economics, Mt. Holyoke College

76. Karl Petrick, Assistant Professor of Economics, Western New England College

77. Robert Pollin, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts

78. Thomas M. Power, Professor, Economics Department, University of Montana

79. Martin Rapetti, University of Massachusetts

80. Miriam Rehm, New School

81. Michael Reich, Professor of Economics, University of California

82. Joseph Ricciardi, Associate Professor of Economics, Babson College

83. Charles P. Rock, Professor of Economics, Rollins College

84. Jaime Ros, Professor of Economics, Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame

85. Helen Scharber, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts

86. Ted P. Schmidt, Associate Professor of Economics and Finance, SUNY Buffalo State

87. John Schmitt, Senior Economist, Center for Economic and Policy Research

88. Ben Schneider, Professor, Department of Political Science, MIT

89. Juliet Schor, Department of Sociology, Boston College

90. Stephanie Seguino, Professor of Economics, University of Vermont

91. Eric Selbin, Professor of Political Science and University Scholar, Southwestern University

92. Nina Shapiro, Professor of Economics, Saint Peter's College

93. John Sheahan, Professor of Economics, Emeritus, Williams College

94. Barry Shelley, Professor, Graduate Programs in Sustainable International Development, Heller School for Social Policy and Management, Brandeis University

95. Maria Luiza Falcão Silva, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh; MSc University of Wisconsin

96. Peter Skott, Department of Economics, University of Massachusetts

97. Bryan Snyder, Department of Economics, Bentley University

98. Rose J. Spalding, Professor, Political Science, DePaul University

99. James Ronald Stanfield, Emeritus Professor of Economics, Colorado State University

100. Howard Stein, Adjunct Professor, Center for Afroamerican and African Studies, Department of Epidemiology, University of Michigan

101. Strom Thacker, Associate Dean of the Faculty, College of Arts and Sciences, Boston University

102. Chris Tilly, Professor of Urban Planning and Director, Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, UCLA

103. Steven Topik, Department of History, University of California

104. Mayo C. Toruño, Professor and Chair of Economics Department, California State University

105. Eric Verhoogen, Associate Professor, Department of Economics and School of International and Public Affairs, Columbia University

106. Matías Vernengo, Associate Professor, University of Utah

107. Tonia Warnecke, Professor, Department of Economics, Rollins College

108. Mark Weisbrot, Co-Director, Center for Economic and Policy Research

109. Thomas E. Weisskopf, Professor Emeritus of Economics, University of Michigan

110. Jonathan B. Wight, Professor of Economics and International Studies, Robins School of Business, University of Richmond

111. Timothy A. Wise, Director of Research and Policy Program, Global Development and Environment Institute (GDAE), Tufts University

112. Marty Wolfson, University of Notre Dame

113. Mickey Wu, Professor, Department of Economics, Coe College

114. David Zalewski, Professor of Finance, Providence College

115. Silverio Zebral, Chief-Economist, Organization of American States (OAS)

Signatários de outros países

1. Absar Alam, Economist, RITES ltd. India, India

2. Derbal Abdelkader, Professor in Economics, Oran University, Algeria

3. Francisco Aguayo, Program Researcher, El Colegio de Mexico, Mexico

4. Gieeta Ahuja, Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, PGDAV(E) College, University of Delhi, India

5. Haroon Akram-Lodhi, Chair of the Department of International Development Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, Canada

6. Fayq Al Akayleh, Quantitative Business Department Head, Al Yamamah University, Saudi Arabia

7. Philip Arestis, Director of Research, Cambridge Centre for Economic & Public Policy (CCEPP) and Senior Research Fellow, Wolfson College, Cambridge, UK

8. Mohamed Aslam, Faculty of Economics and Administration, Department of Economics, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

9. Emilios Avgouleas, Professor of International Financial Markets & Financial Law and Director of the LLM Programme, The School of Law, The University of Manchester, UK

10. Arindam Banerjee, Consultant, Research and Information System in Developing Countries, New Delhi, India

11. Juan José Barrios, Professor, Department of Economics, Universidad ORT, Uruguay

12. Edsel L. Beja Jr., Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University, Philippines

13. Janine Berg, Senior Economist, International Labour Office

14. Peter A.G. van Bergeijk, Professor of International Economics and Macro Economics, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University (ISS), Netherlands

15. Sheila Bhalla, Visiting Professor, Institute for Human Development, New Delhi, India

16. Mustapha Ibn Boamah, Assistant Professor of Economics, Department of Social Science, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, Canada

17. Patrick Bond, Professor of Development Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa

18. Pablo Gabriel Bortz, Ph.D. candidate, Delft University of Technology, Netherlands

19. Sergio Cesaratto, Professor of Economics, Department of Political Economy, University of Siena, Italy

20. Ha-Joon Chang, Department of Economics, University of Cambridge, UK

21. Kyung-Sup Chang, Professor of Sociology, Seoul National University, South Korea

22. Ping Chen, Professor, National School of Development, Peking University, Beijing, and Senior Fellow at the Center for New Political Economy, Fudan University, Shanghai, China

23. Suthiphand Chirathivat, Chairman, Chula Global Network, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

24. John Christensen, Director and Economic Adviser, Tax Justice Network International Secretariat, London, UK

25. Alan Cibils, Chair, Political Economy Department, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires, Argentina

26. Andrew Cornford, Counsellor, Observatoire de la Finance, Geneva, Switzerland

27. Christopher Cramer, Professor of the Political Economy of Development, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), London, UK

28. Ludo Cuyvers, Full Professor, Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Netherlands

29. James M. Cypher, Doctoral Program in Development Studies, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Mexico

30. Anthony P. D'Costa, Professor of Indian Studies and Research Director, Asia Research Centre, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark

31. Xiao-yuan Dong, Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg MB, Canada

32. Javier M. Iguíñiz Echeverría, Profesor Principal Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Universidad Católica del Perú, Perú

33. Chris Edwards, Senior Fellow, University of East Anglia, UK

34. Ibrahim El-Issawy, Professor of Economics, Institute of National Planning, Egypt

35. Ricardo Ffrench-Davis, Professor, Departamento de Economía, Universidad de Chile, Chile

36. Andrew M. Fischer, Senior Lecturer in Population and Social Policy, Convenor of the Poverty Studies MA specialization, Institute of Social Studies (ISS), part of Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Hague

37. Smitha Francis, Principal Economist, Economic Research Foundation (ERF), New Delhi, India

38. Roberto Frenkel, Professor and Principal Research Associate, University of Buenos Aires and CEDES, Argentina

39. Clara García, Associate Professor of Applied Economics, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain

40. Marina Della Giusta, Department of Economics, University of Reading, Reading, UK

41. Jonathan Glennie, Research Fellow, Centre for Aid and Public Expenditure (CAPE), Overseas Development Institute, London, UK

42. Ummuhan Gokovali, Associate Professor, Economics Department, Mugla University, Turkey

43. Margarita F. Gomez, Coordinator, Bantay Kita Project, Action for Economic Reforms (Secretariat), Philippines

44. Ricardo Grinspun, Department of Economics, York University, Canada

45. Arnold Heertje, Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Amsterdam, Netherlands

46. Gerry Helleiner, University of Toronto, Canada

47. Carlos Heredia, Professor and Director of International Studies, Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas A.C., Mexico

48. Rolph van der Hoeven, Professor of Employment and Development Economics, Institute of Social Studies (ISS), Erasmus University, Netherlands

49. S A Hamed Hosseini, Assistant Professor, expert in Global Studies and Sociology, University of Newcastle, Australia

50. Gustavo Indart, Department of Economics, University of Toronto

51. George Irvin, Professorial Research Fellow in Economics of Development Studies, University of London, SOAS, UK

52. P.N. (Raja) Junankar, Emeritus Professor, University of Western Sydney, Australia

53. Rainer Kattel, Professor of Innovation Policy and Technology Governance, Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia

54. Tadeusz Kowalik, Professor of Economics and Humanities, Institute of Economics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

55. Sanat Kumar, Relationship Manager (Medium Enterprises), State Bank Of India, India

56. Kazimierz Laski, Emeritus Professor of Economics, University of Linz, Austria

57. Hwok-Aun Lee, Faculty of Economics and Administration, University of Malaya, Malaysia

58. Louis Lefeber, Emeritus Professor of Economics and Graduate Faculty for Social and Political Thought, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

59. Noemi Levy-Olrik, Economic Faculty, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico

60. Joseph Anthony Lim, Professor Department of Economics, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines

61. Julio G Lopez, Full professor of economics, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico

62. Rasigan Maharajh, Chief Director, Institute for Economic Research on Innovation, Tshwane University of Technology, South Africa

63. Pietro P. Masina, Faculty of Political Sciences, University of Naples "L'Orientale", Italy

64. Terrence McDonough, Professor of Economics, National University of Ireland Galway, Ireland

65. Oudebji Mohamed, Professor of International Economic Law of Development, Faculty of Law in University of Marrakech, Morocco

66. Mritiunjoy Mohanty, Professor, Economics Group, Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, India

67. Sudipto Mundle, Emeritus Professor, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, New Delhi, India

68. Richard Murphy, Director, Tax Research LLP, UK

69. Sreeram Mushty, Freelance Economist, India

70. Nitya Nanda, Fellow, Centre for Global Agreements, Legislation and Trade (GALT), Resources, Regulation and Global Security Division, Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), India Habitat Centre, India

71. André Nassif, Professor, Department of Economics, Universidade Federal Fluminense Brazil and The Brazilian Development Bank (BNDES), Brazil

72. Machiko Nissanke, Professor of Economics, School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London, UK

73. Lisa L. North, Professor Emeritus, York University, Toronto, Canada

74. Susumu Ono, Professor Emeritus, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan

75. José F. Pérez Oya, Retired Secretariat UN member, B.A.- M.A- Oxon, Spain

76. Ignacio Perrotini, Professor, Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico

77. Cosimo Perrotta, Università del Salento, Italy

78. Alberto Arroyo Picard, Professor of International Economics, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Mexico

79. Jan Priewe, University of Applied Sciences, Berlin, Germany

80. Alicia Puyana, D. Phil. Oxon Professor at Facultad Lainoamericana de Ciencias Sociales, FLACSO-Mexico, Mexico

81. Kunibert Raffer, Department of Economics, University of Vienna

82. Arup Rahee, Executive Director, Lokoj Institute, Bangladesh

83. Indira Rajaraman, Honorary Visiting Professor, Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi, India


Tradução: Katarina Peixoto

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